At the Centre of Leadership & Empowerment (CLE), we advance novel insights into leadership and empowerment within a dynamic and diverse environment.

We develop leaders from diverse backgrounds through impactful research, engagement, applied education and collaboration.

Mission

Advancing novel insights into leadership and empowerment within a dynamic and diverse environment.

Purpose

To be a centre of excellence that provides new insights and unique perspectives to leading and empowering people. We research new forms of leadership with a focus on ensuring gender equality, inclusivity, diversity, well-being and empowerment. We foster leadership development by our bespoke education programmes and promote outstanding engagement with industry and community.

Our core values

Research
excellence

Industry & community
engagement

Applied
education

Collaboration

About the Centre for Leadership & Empowerment (CLE)

We live in uncertain times propelled by complex systems, a cycle of global recessions, climate change and the ever-increasing use of technology. To entertain these internal and external challenges, leaders and their leadership is put to test, and people continue to look up to their leaders for solutions. Under these deep uncertain conditions, timely, legitimate, effective and forward-thinking response is expected from leaders. In such dynamic and diverse organisational contexts, we need leaders that can combat challenges and provide an equitable and inclusive experience for their followers.

The Centre for Leadership & Empowerment is one of the four research centres for excellence in the Greater Manchester Business School that provides new insights and approaches to leading, managing and empowering people. We research new forms of leadership and management with a focus on ensuring gender equality, inclusivity, diversity, wellbeing and empowerment.

We are a diverse community of academics and practitioners with expertise in a range of fields including leadership, human resource management, organisation studies, organisational behaviour, culture, psychology, philosophy, gender, organisational sustainability, resilience, management education, anthropology and mainstream management studies. Drawing on our extensive research and evidence-based practice, we support individuals, teams, groups and organisations looking to develop their ability to thrive and succeed in a dynamic and turbulent environment.

We work with businesses, enterprises, companies, charities, government, academic institutions and a range of organisations from the private, public and third sector across the globe to develop and deliver programmes that enhance their leadership capability. We specialise in developing capable, confident and visionary leaders that challenge conventional wisdom which is important in the creation of social, environmental and economic value within organisations.

“Leadership is a personal journey and leaders need to commit to developing their own skills.”

Christian Harrison

Our core activities

Research.

Our research provides new insights into leadership, leadership development and empowerment.

Industry & community engagement.

We connect with the industry and community to address real-world challenges.

Applied education.

We provide bespoke leadership development programmes for several organisations and our centre members contribute to a wide range of undergraduate, postgraduate and professional courses.

Collaboration

We take a collaborative approach in the centre. We work with businesses, enterprises, companies, charities, government, academic institutions and a range of organisations to provide a range of services including consultancy, research and evaluation.

Our members

International advisory board

Gulnaz Brennan

Gulnaz Brennan stands at the helm of the SheInspires Network, where her unwavering commitment revolves around empowering women, amplifying their voices, and ensuring their safety. Her world is dedicated to inspiring positive change, and she finds immense joy in lighting the spark of inspiration in the hearts of countless individuals.

A passionate advocate for women’s empowerment and celebration, Gulnaz wears the hat of an accomplished author. Through her narratives, she weaves tales of triumph, resilience, and empowerment that resonate deeply with her audience. With over two decades of experience in the education sector in the UK and abroad, she has become a stalwart figure, making significant contributions to the field.

Gulnaz is not only the creative mind behind lifestyle books and the community newspaper ChaiTimes but has also launched a national women’s magazine, BEE, adding another dimension to her impactful storytelling.

In her role as the co-founder of the SheInspires Foundation, Gulnaz proudly aligns with the #OrangetheWorld UN global initiative, taking a firm stand against abuse towards women. She sees the color orange as more than a hue; it’s a symbol of hope and action. Gulnaz unites with communities and organizations worldwide under the banner of #WeAreOrange, working collectively to combat gender-based violence.

A firm believer in the transformative power of storytelling, Gulnaz understands its ability to unite communities through fostering understanding and empathy. In addition to her literary accomplishments, she has produced and directed the award-winning documentary “Souls Migrated” in association with the Heritage Lottery Fund, showcasing her commitment to preserving and sharing stories that deserve recognition and remembrance. Her journey is not just about her own accomplishments; it’s a dedicated mission to create a world where every woman’s story is heard, celebrated, and contributes to the collective empowerment of all.

Corporate partners

Publications

Adesanya, A., Harrison, C. and Simba, A. (2020).

“Business models and performance impact of business incubators: a study of Nigeria.” International Journal of Business and Systems Research [Accepted]

Adetuyi, A. M., Tarbert, H. and Harrison, C. (2022).

A Study of Agricultural Companies Development in Nigeria: A Systematic Literature Review. International Journal of Agricultural Science, 7. ISSN: 2367-9026

Ahmed, F. and Harrison, C. (2022).

“Entrepreneurial leadership development in teams: a conceptual model.” International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation

Ahmed, F. and Harrison, C. (2022).

“Entrepreneurial leadership skills and competencies: a systematic literature review” International Review of Entrepreneurship [Accepted/In press]

Ahmed, F and Harrison, C. (2021).

“Challenges and competencies of entrepreneurial leaders in driving innovation at DIY laboratories.” Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 33(10), 1132-1146

Bagheri, A. and Harrison, C. (2020).

“Entrepreneurial leadership measurement: a multi-dimensional construct.” Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 27 (4), 659-679

Ehinmowo, O., Harrison, C. and Olutumise, A. S. (2023)

“Effect of pandemic and lockdown on the performance and operations of farmers’ markets in Southwest, Nigeria”. International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets. ISSN 1753-6227

Ehinmowo, O., Harrison, C. and Olutumise, A. S. (2020)

“Income inequality among entrepreneurs in Ondo state, Nigeria”. International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 24(1), 19-38

Harrison, C., Omeihe I., Simba, A. and Omeihe, K. (2023)

“Leading the way: the entrepreneur or the leader?”. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 35(6), 890-906.

Harrison, C. (2023).

Using semi-structured interviews to research entrepreneurial leadership [Video]. Sage Research Methods.

Harrison, C. (2023).

For innovation in universities, we must stop ineffective traditional paradigms. The Guardian Nigeria.

Harrison, C. (2023).

Christian Harrison: How I became a professor at 35. The Nation.

Harrison, C. (2023).

Who can voters trust in Scottish politics? The Herald.

Harrison, C. (2023).

Why young people in every sphere – not just business and politics – should learn to lead, The Conversation.

Harrison, C. and Omeihe K.O. (2023).

Contextualising African Studies: Challenges and the Way Forward (New Frontiers in African Business and Society). Emerald Publishing Limited.

Harrison, C. and Omeihe K.O. (2023).

"Introduction to the Contextualizing African Studies: Challenges and the Way Forward", Harrison, C. and Omeihe, K.O. (Ed.) Contextualizing African Studies: Challenges and the Way Forward (New Frontiers in African Business and Society), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley [In Press]

Adetuyi, A. M., Tarbert, H. and Harrison, C. (2023).

“Developmental Strategy for Agriculture in Nigeria”, Harrison, C. and Omeihe, K.O. (Ed.) Contextualizing African Studies: Challenges and the Way Forward (New Frontiers in African Business and Society), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley [In Press]

Harrison, C. (2023).

“Contextualising Entrepreneurship: A call for more African Research”, Harrison, C. and Omeihe, K.O. (Ed.) Contextualizing African Studies: Challenges and the Way Forward (New Frontiers in African Business and Society), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley [In Press]

Harrison, C. (2022).

A de facto referendum could work for the SNP – but it's a huge risk, The Herald.

Harrison, C. (2022).

Entrepreneurs know that failure is sometimes necessary – here’s what we can learn from them, The Conversation.

Harrison, C. (2022).

What's so bad about changing your mind?, The Herald.

Harrison, C. (2022).

Whoever leads the Yes or No campaigns could tip balance on independence, says Christian Harrison, The Herald.

Harrison, C. (2022).

"Challenges Faced by Entrepreneurs in Nigeria: A Study of the Retail Pharmacy Sector", Omeihe, K.O. and Harrison, C. (Ed.) The African Context of Business and Society (New Frontiers in African Business and Society), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 189-213

Harrison, C. (2022).

How Ukraine's heroic President Zelenskyy shows the world what a real leader looks like, The Herald.

Harrison, C. (2022).

Five rules for effective leadership in difficult times, The Conversation.

Harrison, C. (2021).

Four Key Rules for Successful Leadership, The Conversation.

Harrison, C. (2020).

Making Sense of Leadership: A Critical Insight into Leadership and Management Research, Switzerland, Palgrave MacMillan.

Harrison, C. (2020).

Traditional Paradigms of Leadership: A Critical Insight into Established Theories and Concepts, Switzerland, Palgrave MacMillan.

Harrison, C. (2020).

Modern Paradigms of Leadership: A Critical Insight into Contemporary Theories and Concepts, Switzerland, Palgrave MacMillan.

Harrison, C. (2020).

Emerging Paradigms of Leadership: A Critical Insight into Developing Theories, Switzerland, Palgrave MacMillan.

Khan, M., Hassan, A., Harrison, C and Tarbert, H. (2020)

“CSR reporting: a review of research and agenda for future research”. Management Research Review, 43(11), 1395-1419.

Mcquade, K.E., Harrison, C. and Tarbert, H. (2020),

"Systematically reviewing servant leadership", European Business Review, 33(3), 465-490

Omeihe, I., Harrison, C., Simba, A. and Omeihe, K. (2023)

“The role of the entrepreneurial leader: a study of Nigerian SMEs”. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 49(2), 187-215

Omeihe, K. O. and Harrison, C. (2022).

The African Context of Business and Society. (New Frontiers in African Business and Society). Emerald Publishing Limited.

Omeihe, K.O. and Harrison, C. (2022),

"Introduction to the African Context of Business and Society: The way Forward", Omeihe, K.O. and Harrison, C. (Ed.) The African Context of Business and Society (New Frontiers in African Business and Society), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 1-9

Omeihe, I. and Harrison, C. (2022),

"Defining Authentic Leadership: A Developing Economy Perspective", Omeihe, K.O. and Harrison, C. (Ed.) The African Context of Business and Society (New Frontiers in African Business and Society), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 31-54

Clark, C. and Harrison, C. (2019)

“Entrepreneurship: an assimilated multi-perspective review”. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 31(1), 43-71

Clark, C., Harrison, C. and Gibb, S. (2019)

“Developing a conceptual framework of entrepreneurial leadership: A systematic literature review and thematic analysis”. International Review of Entrepreneurship, 17(3), 347-384

Sawyerr, E. and Harrison, C. (2023),

"Resilience in healthcare supply chains: a review of the UK’s response to the COVID19 pandemic". International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 53(3), 297-329

Sawyerr, E. and Harrison, C. (2019)

“Developing resilient supply chains: lessons from high-reliability organisations”. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 25(1), 77-100

Clark, C. and Harrison, C. (2018)

“Leadership: the complexities and state of the field”. European Business Review, 30(5), 514- 528

Harrison, C. (2018).

Leadership Theory and Research: A Critical Approach to New and Existing Paradigms, Switzerland, Palgrave MacMillan.

Harrison, C., Burnard, K and Paul, S. (2018).

“Entrepreneurial leadership in a developing economy: a skill-based analysis”. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 25(3), 521-548

Harrison, C., Paul, S. and Burnard, K. (2016).

“Entrepreneurial leadership in retail pharmacy: developing economy perspective”. Journal of Workplace Learning, 28(3), 150-167

Harrison, C., Paul, S. and Burnard, K. (2016).

“Entrepreneurial leadership: a systematic literature review”. International Review of Entrepreneurship, 14(2), 235-264

Bharathkumar, P.R. Wallwork, N., Guo, X. and Harrison, C. (2023).

The influence of women leaders and their Authentic Leadership trait in India’s Automobile Industry. In British Academy of Management 2023 Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2023). ISBN 978-0-9956413-6-5 British Academy of Management.

Ogunnaike, O. Harrison, C. and Clark, C. (2023).

Entrepreneurial leadership: A study of Black Minority Ethnic SMEs in the UK. In British Academy of Management 2023 Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2023). ISBN 978-0-9956413-6-5 British Academy of Management.

Omeihe, I., Omeihe, K. and Harrison, C. (2023).

Stars in the making: The rise of UK migrant entrepreneurs. In British Academy of Management 2023 Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2023). ISBN 978-0-9956413-6-5 British Academy of Management.

Ahmed, F., and Harrison, C. (2022).

Innovation strategies of SMEs’ entrepreneurial leaders: evidence from Pakistan. In British Academy of Management 2022 Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2022). British Academy of Management.

Alonge, T. and Harrison, C. (2022).

Crisis leadership and leadership styles: before, during and after. In British Academy of Management 2022 Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2022). British Academy of Management.

Omeihe, I., Harrison, C. and Omeihe, K. (2022).

Authentic leadership repair within a developing economy context. In British Academy of Management 2022 Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2022). British Academy of Management.

Omeihe, I., Harrison, C., Omeihe, K. and Olusegun, O. (2022).

Authentic entrepreneurial leadership within the Igbo trade apprenticeship system. In British Academy of Management 2022 Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2022). British Academy of Management.

Adetuyi, A., Harrison, C. and Tarbert, H. (2021)

“A study of agricultural companies’ development in Nigeria: a systematic literature review”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, BAM Conference in The Cloud, Lancaster.

Ahmed, F. and Harrison, C. (2021).

“Entrepreneurial leadership (EL): an investigation of entrepreneurial competition on EL’s competencies development”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, BAM Conference in The Cloud, Lancaster.

Harrison, C. (2021).

“Leading during crisis: a Scottish higher education perspective”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, BAM Conference in The Cloud, Lancaster.

Mcquade, K., Harrison, C. and Tarbert, H. (2021)

“Leadership and the consequences of morality”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, BAM Conference in The Cloud, Lancaster.

Mendy, J. and Harrison, C. (2021).

“Distributed leadership in SMEs: a review, critique and new directions”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, BAM Conference in The Cloud, Lancaster.

Omeihe, I., Harrison, C. and Omeihe, K. (2021).

“Authentic leadership skills within a developing economy context”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, BAM Conference in The Cloud, Lancaster.

Omeihe, I., Harrison, C. and Omeihe, K. (2021).

“Authentic leadership: a systematic literature review”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, BAM Conference in The Cloud, Lancaster.

Omeihe, I., Omeihe, K. O. and Harrison, C. (2021).

The Rise or Fall of Authentic Leadership. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2021, No. 1, p. 13926). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.

Zaghmout, B. and Harrison, C. (2021).

“Distributed leadership in the tourism industry: a study of Dubai”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, BAM Conference in The Cloud, Lancaster.

Adeshipo, A. and Harrison, C. (2020).

“Ethical leadership in the public sector: an African perspective”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, BAM Conference in The Cloud.

Adetuyi, A., Harrison, C. and Tarbert, H. (2020)

“National economic policy and corporate sector development: a study of South-western Nigerian agricultural companies’ development”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, BAM Conference in The Cloud.

Anyanwu, S., Aiyedogbon, J. and Harrison, C. (2020).

“Innovative development in Africa: cluster and triple helix approach”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, BAM Conference in The Cloud

Harrison, C. (2020).

“Challenges faced by entrepreneurs in a developing economy: a study in the retail sector”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, BAM Conference in The Cloud.

Mcquade, K., Harrison, C. and Tarbert, H. (2020)

“Servant leadership: the skills of those who serve”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, BAM Conference in The Cloud.

Mendy, J. and Harrison, C. (2020).

“Leadership and the changing world of work: a review, a critique and new directions”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, BAM Conference in The Cloud.

Omeihe, I. and Harrison, C. (2020).

“Authentic leadership moments: the impact of authentic leadership behaviours in an emerging economy context”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, BAM Conference in The Cloud.

Zaghmout, B. and Harrison, C. (2020).

“Distributed leadership in the tourism industry”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, BAM Conference in The Cloud.

Zaghmout, B. and Harrison, C. (2020).

“Distributed leadership: systematic literature review”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, BAM Conference in The Cloud

Adikwu, V., Emmanuel, K. and Harrison, C. (2019).

“Significance of guidance and counselling in entrepreneurial development and women empowerment in federal capital territory Nigeria”. Centre for African Research on Enterprise and Economic Development (CAREED), Annual Conference, Paisley.

Anyanwu, S., Hassan, A., Adikwu, V. and Harrison, C. (2019).

“Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and macroeconomic policy environment in Nigeria”. Centre for African Research on Enterprise and Economic Development (CAREED), Annual Conference, Paisley.

Emeanulu, L., Harrison, C. and Fletcher, M. (2019)

“The effectiveness of risk management strategy on business performance: A knowledge management perspective”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, Birmingham.

Harrison, C., Collins, S., Gilardi, M., Balaraman, P., Reilly, C. Valentin, S. and Papadopoulou, C. (2019).

“Leadership skills in higher education: a study of Scotland”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, Birmingham.

Harrison, C., Collins, S., Gilardi, M., Balaraman, P., Reilly, C. Valentin, S. and Papadopoulou, C. (2019).

“Leadership in higher education: A study of the west of Scotland”. Learning, Teaching and Research Conference Annual Conference, Paisley.

Adeshipo, A. S. and Harrison, C. (2018).

“Ethical leadership: the way forward”. In British Academy of Management 2018 Conference Proceedings [565] Bristol: British Academy of Management.

Adeshipo, A. S. and Harrison, C. (2018).

“Ethical leadership: an effective and efficient leadership approach for the Nigeria public sector”. In British Academy of Management 2018 Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2018). [567] Bristol: British Academy of Management.

Hassan, A., Struthers, J., Talbot, S., Harrison, C., Nziku, D., Collins, S. and Moore, A. (2018).

“Female entrepreneurs and their contribution to the Egyptian economy”. 23-23. Centre for African Research and Economic Development (CAREED), Annual Conference, Paisley, United Kingdom.

Mcquade, K., Harrison, C. and Tarbert, H. (2018).

Servant leadership: a thematic analysis. In British Academy of Management 2018 Conference Proceedings [800] Bristol: British Academy of Management.

Mcquade, K., Harrison, C. and Tarbert, H. (2018).

Servant leadership: the skills of those who serve. In British Academy of Management 2018 Conference Proceedings [551] Bristol: British Academy of Management.

Clark, C. and Harrison, C. (2017)

“The entrepreneurial leadership paradigm: a thematic analysis”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, Warwick.

Clark, C. and Harrison, C. (2017)

“Entrepreneurial leadership: Scotland, skills, and SMEs”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, Warwick.

Harrison, C. and Imam, M. (2017)

" An investigation of the role of transformational leadership behaviours: a case study on Sainsbury’". British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, Warwick.

Massiah, P, Harrison, C, Odibo, E, McTavish, A and Jones, M. (2017)

“Delphi methodology: from nuclear science to humanitarian disaster management”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, Warwick.

Harrison, C. (2016)

“Entrepreneurial leadership in the retail pharmacy sector of a developing economy”. International Council for Small Business (ICSB), World Conference on Entrepreneurship, New Jersey/New York.

Massiah, P. and Harrison, C. (2016)

"Measures to improve humanitarian supply chain and logistics operations for beneficiary agencies". British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, Newcastle.

Harrison, C. (2015)

“Entrepreneurial leadership in retail pharmacy: a developing economy perspective”. University of the West of Scotland (UWS), Research Conference, Paisley.

Harrison, C. and Paul, S. (2015)

"Entrepreneurial leadership: where are we in the field?". British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, Portsmouth.

Harrison, C. and Paul, S. (2014)

“Entrepreneurial leadership in a developing economy: The retail pharmacy sector”. Institute for Small Business & Entrepreneurship (ISBE), Annual Conference, Manchester.

Harrison, C. and Paul, S. (2014)

“Entrepreneurial leadership in the retail pharmacy sector of a developing economy”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Annual Conference, Belfast.

Harrison, C. and Paul, S. (2014)

“Entrepreneurial leadership: a systematic literature review”. International Council for Small Business (ICSB), World Conference on Entrepreneurship, Dublin.

Harrison, C. (2013)

“Entrepreneurial leadership in the retail pharmacy sector of a developing economy. a study in Nigeria”. British Academy of Management (BAM), Doctoral Consortium, Liverpool.

Bateman, W., Whitehead, K. (2004)

Health visitors’ domestic violence routine questioning tool: An exploration of women’s experience, effectiveness and acceptability. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education. Vol 42, Issue 1, pages 14-22

Bateman, W., Whitehead, K. (2004)

Health visitors’ domestic violence routine questioning tool: An exploration of women’s experience, effectiveness and acceptability. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education. Vol 42, Issue 1, pages 14-22
This paper won best paper award (2004) for the above research based on professional impact – the recommendations were implemented nationally along with academic requirements.

Wan, Ming Wai., Bateman,  W. (2007)

Adolescents and intimate partner violence: Evaluating a brief school-based education programme: International Journal of Health Promotion and Education. Vol 45, (1) 17-23.
The above paper resulted in DV educational programmes being introduced to the curriculum (PSHE) within high schools.

Bateman, W., Smith, C.L. (2003)

Women’s Attitudes and Behaviours: Providing Women with a voice. Scarman Trust: Millennium Commission.

Bateman, W., White, D. (2002)

Pre-Hospital Emergency Service Evaluation: Safeguarding Domestic Violence Victims. Boston: Boston EMS.

Contact details

Director

Professor Christian Harrison
Professor of Leadership & Enterprise
c.harrison2@bolton.ac.uk

Centre for Leadership and Empowerment,
Greater Manchester Business School,
University of Bolton, Great Moor Street,
Bolton BL1 1SW
cle@bolton.ac.uk

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Help Centre

We have the answers to your questions, find all the advice and support in one place.

Part of the University of Bolton Group

Bolton college
Alliance learning
Anderton centre2
QQA Scheme Participant