This web page is intended as a guide to Harvard referencing at the University of Bolton, please check with your tutor for the exact format required for your work.

For further information on the revised and expanded Harvard Referencing section please watch the following video:

 

Library Publications

 

Citing In The Text

When you directly quote or paraphrase someone else’s work in your assignment, you must acknowledge the source by including the author's/editor's name/s and year of publication within the text. Click on the appropriate bar below for further information.

Paraphrasing or Summarising an Author

In the text of your work you must cite the author or editor’s name and date of publication each time you paraphrase or summarise from a source of information. In order to cite a single author in the text you need to include the author’s surname, and the year of publication in brackets.

 

For Example

The Internet has changed the way students access research material (Robson, 2011).

If you mention the author in the text, only put the year in brackets.

 

For Example

The work of Robson (2011) shows that the Internet has changed the way students access research material.

How to cite multiple authors in the text depends upon the number of authors.

For Example

1 or 2 authors (all authors are cited):
The public believes that financial audits are primarily used for identifying fraud (Cosserat and Rodda, 2009).

3 or more authors (only the first author is cited and the others are represented by et al):
The discipline of economics provides a way of understanding the decisions people take (Sloman et al., 2012).

If referencing is being made to authors from different works, they must all be in included and listed in chronological order, the earliest listed first.

 

For Example

The discipline of economics provides a way of understanding the decisions people take (Begg et al., 2011; Sloman et al., 2012).

Or

Begg et al. (2011) and Sloman et al. (2012) believe that the discipline of economics provides a way of understanding the decisions people take.

 

Direct Quotes

In order to cite a direct quote from a single author you need to put the quote in inverted commas, followed by the author’s surname, the year and page numbers in brackets.

 

For Example

“Claiming to do work which you have not done, or exaggerating its amount, or fabricating results or findings is unforgivable as it strikes at the heart of trust in research” (Robson, 2011, p.497).

How you cite multiple authors in the text depends upon the number of authors. Both methods include the year of publication and page numbers in brackets.

 

For Example

1 or 2 authors (all authors are cited):
“Skeletal muscle can account for as much as 45% of total body mass” (Burke and Deakin, 2011, p.1 ).

3 or more authors (only the first author is cited and the others are represented by et al):
“Inequality grew dramatically in the 1980s and did not begin to reduce again until 2000, and then only very slightly” (Solomon et al., 2012, p.289).

 

Electronic Sources

In order to cite from an electronic journal or website you need to include the author’s surname and the year of publication in brackets.

For Example

Turner (2001) has created many useful graphs showing the transition between the different age groups.

In order to cite from a website that has no obvious author stated you should use the title of the page or organisation that hosts the page as the point of reference.

For Example

A comprehensive study (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, 2000) has stated that lung cancer is the most common form of the disease in the UK.

 

Citing a Citation

Occasionally you may want to cite a reference that has been mentioned in a work you have been reading. Before doing so, you should make every effort to track down, and read, the original material. You must not give the impression that you have consulted the originals by listing them in your bibliography, as you might be accused of plagiarism. In other words, you must not quote a secondary source as a primary source.

However, if you cannot consult the originals, you may cite them as follows:

Citing in the text

 

For Example

“We examine ideology as fellow travellers, not as neutral observers.” (Vincent, 1995 cited in Heywood, 2012, p.15).

 

Citing in the bibliography

Only list primary source

 

For Example

Heywood, A. (2012) Political ideologies: an introduction. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillian.

 

Citing the Author of a Chapter in an Edited Book

If you are citing the author of chapter in book with a different editor, cite the chapter author in the text:

For Example

Harlen (2012) considers that both formative and summative assessment contribute to effective teaching and learning.

 

Cite in the bibliography or reference list as follows:

Harlen, W. (2012) On the relationship between assessment for formative and summative purposes. In Gardner, J. (ed.) Assessment and learning, 2nd ed. London: Sage, p.87.

 

 

Citing In The Reference List Or Bibliography

Reference List Or Bibliography?

The most common examples are listed below. Scroll down to see a list of other sources.

Examples of print and online sources have been included below, but if there isn’t a suitable online example, follow the general rule: [Online] is included after the title and replace Place of Publication: Publisher with Available from: URL. [Accessed Date].

 

Key Sources

Book

Include book edition details unless it’s the first edition.

Print:

Author. (Year) Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Ten Have, S., Ten Have, W. and Stevens, F. (2003) Key management models. Harlow: Pearson Education.

Johnson, G. and Scholes, K. (2002) Exploring corporate strategy. 6th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education.

Cite in text: (Ten Have et al., 2003), (Johnson and Scholes, 2002)

 

Online:

Author. (Year) Title. Edition. [Online] Place of publication: Publisher. Available from: URL. [Accessed Date].

Keenan, D. and Riches, S. (2007) Business law. [Online] Harlow: Pearson Education. Available from: http://lib.myilibrary.com/. [Accessed 27 June 2009].

Cite in text: (Keenan and Riches, 2007)

 

Edited book:

Editor. (ed/s.) (Year) Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Oldroyd, M. (ed.) (2004) Developing academic library staff for future success. London: Facet Publishing.

Cite in text: (Oldroyd, 2004)

 

Book section or chapter:

Author. (Year) Title. In: Editor. (ed/s.) (Year) Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, pp. Pages.

Town, J. S. (2003) Information literacy and the information society. In: Hornby, S. and Clarke, Z. (eds.) (2003) Change and challenge: debates on the information society for the 21st Century. London: Facet Publishing, pp. 83-103.

Cite in text: (Town, 2003)

Journal Article

Print:

Author. (Year) Title. Journal, Volume (Issue), pp. Pages.

Kennerley, M. and Neely, A. (2003) Measuring performance in a changing business environment. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 23(2), pp. 213-229.

Cite in text: (Kennerley and Neely, 2003)

 

Online:

Author. (Year) Title. Journal, [Online] Volume (Issue), pp. Pages. Available from: URL. [Accessed Date].

Moullin, M. (2004) Eight essentials of performance management. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, [Online] 17(3), pp. 110-112. Available from: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/. [Accessed 2 March 2006].

Cite in text: (Moullin, 2004)

Newspaper Article

Print:

Reporter. (Year) Title. Newspaper, Date, pp. Pages.

Campbell, D. (2009) Late cancer diagnosis kills 10,000 a year. The Guardian, 30 November, p. 1.

Cite in text: (Campbell, 2009)

 

Online:

Author. (Year) Title of article. Newspaper. [Online] Date of publication. Available from: URL. [Accessed Date].

Campbell, D. (2009) Late cancer diagnosis kills 10,000 a year. The Guardian. [Online] 30 November. Available from: http://find.galegroup.com. [Accessed 28 January 2010].

Cite in text: (Campbell, 2009)

Webpage

Use websites with caution - remember anyone can publish a website. Use the website evaluation techniques included in BISSTO to help you decide if the website you want to use is a valid academic source.

Author or Organisation. (Year) Title. [Online] Available from: URL. [Accessed Date].

Leggatt, R. (1992) A history of photography from its beginnings till the 1920s. [Online] Available from: http://www.rleggat.com/photohistory/. [Accessed 8 August 2003].

Cite in text: (Leggatt, 1992)

Cabinet Office. (2010) Building Britain’s recovery. [Online] Available from: http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/. [Accessed 8 January 2010].

Cite in text: (Cabinet Office, 2010)

 

Referencing: Common Issues

Authors with Academic or Professional Titles

Author name. [Title]

Tumin, S. [Judge]

Green, J. [Prof.]
(Note that Prof. requires a full stop as it is an abbreviation)

Citing Multiple Sources When Paraphrasing

You may be making a point in your assignment that is supported by evidence from several sources. You should cite them all in the same bracket, in order of publication date (earliest first), separated with a semi colon as follows:

(Abbott, 2001; Anderson, 2009; Adams, 2015)

Corporate Names

It is acceptable to use abbreviations for well-known organisations or companies such as BBC, BSI, OECD, etc. For lesser known companies use the full name and abbreviate after the first use if necessary.

Long URLs

Some online resources have a very long URL, which can be unwieldy in a reference list or bibliography. It is acceptable to shorten the URL to the first forward slash, but make sure it is enough to identify the source.

Missing Details

You should attempt to locate as much information as possible about sources that you are using. If the source is incomplete, ask yourself if it is a reliable source to use for academic purposes.

It is possible to replace some missing items with Latin notation:

No author – replace author or organisation with Anon, e.g., Anon, (2015)

No date – n.d. or simply use unknown, e.g., Brown, A. (n.d) or Brown, A. (unknown)

It is also possible to use the title first with material such as an atlas or dictionary.

The Times Concise Atlas of the World (2000) 8th ed. London: Times Books.

If other items are missing, such as publisher, place of publication, pagination, simply put the appropriate items in brackets (no publisher) or (no pagination).

Multiple Authors/Editors

In Text Citations

Two authors/editors - include them both as follows:

(Johnson and Scholes, 2002)

More than two authors/editors - use the first author followed by et al. as follows:

(Ten Have et al., 2003)

Reference List or Bibliography

You should include all author/editor names in the reference list. Where a source has a very long list of authors, e.g., in the case of some scientific articles, you might wish to consult your tutor on whether to use "et al." in place of some author names.

Two authors - include both authors in the reference, with their names separated by "and".

Johnson, G. and Scholes, K. (2002) Exploring corporate strategy. 6th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education.

More than two authors – separate the names with commas and include "and" before the final author name.

Ten Have, S., Ten Have, W. and Stevens, F. (2003) Key management models. Harlow: Pearson Education.

Multiple Sources by the Same Author/Editor

Authors often publish several papers or books on the same topic and you may find that you want to quote or paraphrase from several sources from the same author. The sources should be ranked by date where possible, both in the reference list and in the in-text citations, with the source published earliest coming first, separated by a semi-colon.

In text citation:

(Adams, 2010; Adams, 2015)

Reference list:

Adams, A. (2010) Economics…
Adams, A. (2015) Further economics…

 

Multiple Sources by the Same Author/Editor Published in the Same Year

Occasionally you may be using papers from the same author published in the same year. If that is the case you must separate the citations/references by adding lower case letters as follows:

In text citation:

(Evans, 2014a; Evans, 2014b)

Make sure you start the first source 2014a, then 2014b and so on. You must label your in-text citations in this way and also in the Reference List or bibliography.

Reference list:
Evans, A. (2014a) Sociology…
Evans, A. (2014b) Further sociology…

 

Other Sources

If you have need to reference a source type that is not included in this list, try a ‘best-fit’ with a source with similar characteristics and check with your tutor. See the Common Issues section at the end for further guidance.

Act of Parliment - UK Legislation

LLB/LLM students must use OSCOLA. Students completing a law module as part of another programme may have to use OSCOLA – check with your tutor

Note that the year forms part of the title and is not placed in brackets.

Print:

Title and year, chapter number. Place of publication: Publisher.

Health Act 1999, c.8. London: HMSO.

Cite in text: (Health Act 1999)

For Acts prior to 1963, the regnal year and parliamentary session (Year of reign of the monarch at the time the Act was introduced and the monarch’s abbreviated name) are also included and the year is after this in brackets.

Mental Health Act, 7 Eliz. 2, c.72. (1959) London: HMSO.

Cite in text: (Mental Health Act, 1959)

 

Online:

Title and year, chapter number. [Online] Available from: URL. [Accessed Date].

Health Act 1999, c.8. [Online] Available from: http://login.westlaw.co.uk/. [Accessed 28 January 2016].

Cite in text: (Health Act 1999)

Annual Reports/Company/Industry Reports

Print:

Author/Company/Organisation Name. (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Department for Transport. (2011) Reported casualties Great Britain: 2010 annual report. London: The Stationary Office.

Cite in text: (Department for Transport, 2011), abbreviate to (DFT, 2011) after the first use of the citation

Bunzl PLC. (2014) Bunzl PLC Annual Report 2014. London: Bunzl PLC.

Cite in text: (Bunzl PLC, 2014)

 

Online:

Author/Company/ Organisation Name. (Year) Title. [Online] Available from: URL. [Accessed Date].

Department for Transport. (2011) Reported casualties Great Britain: 2010 annual report. [Online] Available from: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/. [Accessed 26 November 2015].

Cite in text: (Department for Transport, 2011), abbreviate to (DFT, 2011) after the first use of the citation

Bunzl PLC. (2014) Bunzl PLC Annual Report 2014. [Online] Available from: http://www.bunzl.com. [Accessed 26 November 2015].

Cite in text: (Bunzl PLC, 2014)

OECD. (2015) Education at a Glance 2015: OECD Indicators, United Kingdom. [Online] Available from: http://www.oecd.org/. [Accessed 27 November 2015].

Cite in text: (OECD, 2015)

App

Creator. (Year) Title. Version if known. [App] [Date accessed].

Cite DMS Ltd. (2015) NHS Acronym Buster. Version 2.2. [App] [Accessed 26 November 2015].

Cite in text: (Cite DMS Ltd., 2015)

Audio Books

Author. (Year) Title. [Format – Audio CD/Audio Download/Audio MP3]. Version (abridged or unabridged). Place of publication: Publisher.

Douglass, J. W. and Larkin, P. (2011) JFK and the unspeakable: why he died and why it matters. [Audio MP3]. Unabridged. London: Simon and Schuster.

Cite in text: (Douglass and Larkin, 2011)

If you are quoting from the book, instead of using page numbers, add in the exact time that the words are spoken to help locate the information you are referring to: (Douglass and Larkin, 2011: 1:24:35).

Blog

Author. (Year) Title of blog post. Blog title. [Blog] Date of post. Available from: URL. [Date accessed].

Taylor, S. E. (2015) Happy birthday George Boole! University of Bolton Library Electronic Resources. [Blog] 2 November 2015. Available from: https://eresourcesbolton.wordpress.com/. [Accessed 26 November 2015].

Cite in text: (Taylor, 2015)

British Standard/International Standard

Print:

Author. (Year) Standard number: Year Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

British Standards Institution. (1993) BS 3375-part 2: 1993 Management services. Part 2: guide to method studies. Milton Keynes: British Standards Institution.

Cite in text: (British Standards Institution, 1993) (Abbreviate to BSI after first citation)

 

Online:

Author. (Year) Standard number: Year Title. [Online] Available from: URL. [Accessed Date].

British Standards Institution. (1993) BS 3375-part 2: 1993 Management services. Part 2: guide to method studies. [Online] Available from: https://bsol-bsigroup-com.ezproxy.bolton.ac.uk/. [Accessed 23 January 2016].

Cite in text: (British Standards Institution, 1993) (Abbreviate to BSI after first citation)

Case Law/Law Report

LLB/LLM students must use OSCOLA. Students completing a law module as part of another programme may have to use OSCOLA – check with your tutor.

Print:

Name of parties. (separated with a v and in italics) [Year] Volume number if applicable Law Report abbreviated name. Start page.

Starbucks v BskyB. [2015] 3 All ER. 469.

Cite in text: (Starbucks v BskyB, 2015)

Blexen Ltd v G Percy Trentham Ltd. [1991] 54 BLR. 37.

Cite in text: (Blexen Ltd v G Percy Trentham Ltd, 1991)

 

Online:

Name of parties. (separated with a v and in italics) [Year] Volume number if applicable Law Report abbreviated name. Start page. [Online] Available from: URL. [Date accessed].

Hayes v Willoughby. [2013] 2 Cr. App. R. 11. [Online] Available from: http://login.westlaw.co.uk/. [Accessed 27 November 2015].

Cite in text: (Hayes v Willoughby, 2013)

Command Paper (Government Publications including treaties, white papers, green papers, commission reports, inquiry reports, some statistics and annual reports)

Print:

Government department/committee/organisation. (Year) Title. (Command no. if applicable). Place of publication: Publisher.

Department of Health. (1998) Our healthier nation: a contract for health: a consultation paper. London: The Stationary Office.

Cite in text: (Department of Health, 1998). The name of a government department can be abbreviated to a suitable short title after the first full citation, such as (DH, 1998)

Woolf, H. [The Rt. Hon. Lord Justice] and Tumin, S. [Judge] (1991) Prison disturbances April 1990: report of an inquiry by the Rt Hon Lord Justice Woolf (parts I and II) and His Honour Judge Stephen Tumim (part II): presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for the Home Department by command of Her Majesty February 1991. (Cm 1456). London: HMSO.

Cite in text: (Woolf and Tumin, 1991)

 

Online:

Government department/committee/organisation. (Year) Title. (Command no. if applicable). [Online] Available from: URL. [Accessed Date].

House of Lords Select Committee on the Constitution. (2015) Scotland Bill. (HL Paper 59). [Online] Available from: http://www.parliament.uk. [Accessed 26 November 2015].

Cite in text: (House of Lords Select Committee on the Constitution, 2015). Abbreviate to a suitable short title after the first full citation, such as (House of Lords, 2015)

Computer Games/Program

Author/Company. (Year) Game or Program title. [Format – Disc or Download] Series/edition (e.g., Xbox, PlayStation). Place of publication: Publisher.

Microsoft. (2012) Minecraft. [Disc] Xbox 360. Redmond, WA: Microsoft.

Cite in text: (Microsoft, 2012)

Conference Proceedings

Conference papers and proceedings can be particularly difficult to reference. Try to include as much relevant information as possible using the following guidelines and check with your tutor if you are still unsure.

1. Conference Proceedings

Print:

Author or Organisation. (Year of publication) Proceedings of Conference Title. Conference Location, Date, Place of publication: Publisher.

Software Development Conference and Show Group. (1997) Proceedings of the Computer Games Developers’ Conference. Santa Clara Convention Centre, Santa Clara, California, 25-29 April 1997, San Francisco: Miller Freeman.

Cite in text: (Software Development Conference and Show Group, 1997). Abbreviate to a suitable short title after the first citation (Software Development Conference, 1997).

 

Online:

Author or Organisation. (Year of publication) Proceedings of Conference Title. Conference Location, Date. [Online] Available from: URL. [Accessed Date].

Kaoru K. (ed.) (2013) Proceedings of Public-Key Cryptography - 16th International Conference on Practice and Theory in Public-Key Cryptography. Nara, Japan, 26 February - 1 March, 2013. [Online] Available from: https://www.iacr.org/. [Accessed 26 January 2016].

Cite in text:
(Kaoru, 2013)

 

2. Conference Paper Proceedings

Print:

Author. (Year of publication) Title. In: Author/Organisation. (Year of publication) Proceedings of Conference Title. Conference Location, Date, Place of publication: Publisher, pp. Pages.

Kerlow, I. (1997) Art direction for games. In: Software Development Conference and Show Group. (1997) Proceedings of the Computer Games Developers’ Conference. Santa Clara Convention Centre, Santa Clara, California, 25-29 April 1997, San Francisco: Miller Freeman, pp. 457-460.

Cite in text: (Kerlow, 1997)

 

Online:

Author. (Year of publication) Title. In: Author/Organisation. (Year of publication) Proceedings of Conference Title. Conference Location, Date. [Online] Available from: URL. [Accessed Date].

Matei, E. and Julan, I. C. (2015) Cyber risks and vulnerabilities, a clear and present danger. In: The International Annual Scientific Session Strategies XXI. (2015) National Defence University, Bucharest, 11-12 June 2015. [Online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.bolton.ac.uk/. [Accessed 26 January 2016].

Cite in text: (Matei and Julan, 2015)

 

3. Conference Paper (unpublished)

Print:

Author. (Year) Title. Paper presented at: Conference Title, Conference Location, Date.

Smith, B. (2009) Assessment – are we getting it right? Paper presented at: University of Bolton Annual Learning and Teaching Staff Conference. University of Bolton, 2 July 2009.

Cite in text: (Smith, 2009)

 

Online:

Author. (Year) Title. Paper presented at: Conference Title, Conference Location, Date. [Online] Available from: URL. [Accessed Date].

Rodriguez-Yborra, M. and Bacova, D. (2015) An e-Intervention to boost trainee teachers’ peer assessment and reflective practice. In: 20th Annual TCC Worldwide Online Conference: Hawaii 2-0 The Future is now. Hawaii, 17-19 March 2015. [Online] Available from: http://ubir.bolton.ac.uk/696/. [Accessed 26 January 2016].

Cite in text: (Rodriguez-Yborra and Bacova, 2015)

Confidential Sources

You may need permission to quote or paraphrase from confidential sources. You must remove any identifying information in the in-text citation and in the reference list. Confidential sources are usually reports, so use the format below. If your source is not a report, use the appropriate style, but remove any identifiers and add in the *confidential document.

Host Organisation.* (Year) Title. [Document type]. Host Organisation.
*confidential document

Host Organisation.* (2007) Ward procedures for the paediatric wards. [Hospital policy document] Host Organisation.
*confidential document

Cite in text: (Host Organisation,* 2007).

Dance

1. Live Performance

Choreographer/Director. (Premier Year) Title. [Live performance] Composed by … if known. Performed by… if known. [Venue, location. Full date of performance seen].

Bobrov, S. (2015) Swan lake. [Live performance] Composed by Peter Tchaikovsky. Performed by Russian State Ballet. [Bridgewater Hall, Manchester. 17 January 2016].

Cite in text: (Swan Lake, 2015)

 

2. DVD/Video

Choreographer/Director. (Year published/transmitted) Title. [Format] Location: Production company/publisher. [Notes to identify work if necessary].

Wheeldon, C. (2011) Alice's adventures in wonderland. [DVD] London: The Royal Ballet.

Cite in text: (Alice's adventures in wonderland, 2011)

Various Artists. (2012) An evening with The Royal Ballet. [DVD] London: The Royal Ballet. [Highlights from various ballets performed by The Royal Ballet].

Cite in text: (An evening with The Royal Ballet, 2012)

Dictionary/Encyclopaedia

Print:

If author is present:
Author. (ed/s) (Year) Title. Volume if present. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Bannock, G. and Baxter, R. (2011) The Penguin dictionary of economics. 8th ed. London: Penguin.

Cite in text: (Bannock and Baxter, 2011)

Often the author isn’t present:
Title. (Year) Volume if present. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Oxford paperback thesaurus. (2012) 4th ed. Oxford: OUP.

Cite in text: (Oxford Paperback Thesaurus, 2012)

 

Online:

(Use the title as above if there isn’t a named author or editor)
Author. (ed/s) (Year) Title. [Online] Volume if present. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher. Available from: URL. [Date Accessed].

Clark, C.L. (ed.) (2011) The American economy: a historical encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. Available from: http://search.credoreference.com. [Accessed 1 December 2015].

Cite in text: (Clark, 2011)

If the encylopedia consists of a series of contributions by different authors, treat the source as a chapter in an edited book.

Author. (Year) Title. In: Editor. (ed/s.) (Year) Title. Volume if present. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, pp. Pages.

Kilmister, C.W. (1994) Relativity. In: Grattan-Guinness, I. (ed.) (1994) Companion encyclopedia of the history and philosophy of the mathematical sciences. Volume 2. London: Routledge, pp. 1235-1241.

Cite in text: (Kilmister, 1994)

Ebook Reader

Author. (Year) Title. Edition. [Name of e-book reader]. Place of publication: Publisher.

Slapper, G. and Kelly, D. (2015) The English legal system: 2015-2016. 16th ed. [Kindle] Abingdon: Routledge.

Cite in text: (Slapper, 2015)

Email

Take care when referencing email, particularly if a personal email is included. It may be a good idea to seek permission before including a personal email. Including personal communication of this type is debateable as the source is not in the public domain. Your tutor may prefer that you mention the source in the text, but do not include it in your reference list – clarify this point with your tutor prior to submission.

Name of sender. (sender’s email address) Date. Re: subject heading. Email to name. (email address).

Mintel. (mintelmarketing@mintel.com) 27 November 2009. Re: 2010 Consumer Trends. Email to M.E Barden. (m.e.barden@bolton.ac.uk).

Cite in text: (Mintel, 2009)

EU Legislation/Directive

All in italics and the title is not capitalised.

Print:

Institution (e.g. European Commission, Council Directive, EU Regulation) Form Year/legislation number followed by the date it was passed and the title.

Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2015/2217 of 27 November 2015 on measures to prevent the introduction into the Union of the foot-and-mouth disease virus from Libya and Morocco.

Cite in text: (Commission Implementing Decision, 2015/2217)

 

Online:

Institution (e.g. European Commission, Council Directive, EU Regulation) Form Year/legislation number followed by the date it was passed and the title. [Online] Available from: URL. [Date Accessed].

Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2015/2217 of 27 November 2015 on measures to prevent the introduction into the Union of the foot-and-mouth disease virus from Libya and Morocco. [Online] Available from: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/. [Accessed 1 December 2015].

Cite in text: (Commission Implementing Decision, 2015/2217)

EU Treaty

Print:

Full title of the treaty, full date of signature. Document reference number. Place of publication: Publisher.

12007L/TXT: Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community, signed at Lisbon, 13 December 2007. OJ C 306. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Cite in text: shorten the name of the treaty, (Treaty of Lisbon, 2007)

 

Online:

Full title of the treaty, full date of signature. [Online] Document reference number. Available from: URL. [Date accessed].

12007L/TXT: Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community, signed at Lisbon, 13 December 2007. [Online] OJ C 306. Available from: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/. [Accessed 1 December 2015].

Cite in text: shorten the name of the treaty, (Treaty of Lisbon, 2007)

Exhibition Catalogue

Author or Gallery/Museum. (Year) Title. [Exhibition catalogue] Place of publication: Publisher.

Southampton City Art Gallery. (2002) Douglas Allsop; Volume 1: exhibition catalogue. [Exhibition catalogue] Southampton: Southampton City Art Gallery.

Cite in text: (Southampton City Art Gallery, 2002)

Embroiderers’ Guild. (2009) Art of the stitch: international open exhibition. [Exhibition Catalogue] Surrey: The Embroiderers’ Guild.

Cite in text: (Embroiderers’ Guild, 2009)

Film

DVD

Title. (Year Released). [Film: DVD] Directed by … . Place of production: Production Company.

Shrek. (2001). [Film: DVD] Directed by A. Anderson. Glendale, CA: Dreamworks.

Cite in text: (Shrek, 2001)

If you are making reference to a particular scene or quoting from the film, you can also add in the exact time that the event occurs to help locate the information you are referring to: (Shrek, 2001: 1:24:35).

 

Broadcast

Title. (Year Released).[Film: Television broadcast] Directed by … . Place of production: Production Company. Television channel, date and time of broadcast.

Shrek. (2001). [Film: Television broadcast] Directed by A. Anderson. Glendale, CA: Dreamworks. Channel 4, 20 June 2013 17:30.

Cite in text: (Shrek, 2001)

If you are making reference to a particular scene or quoting from the film, you can also add in the exact time that the event occurs to help locate the information you are referring to: (Shrek, 2001: 1:24:35).

 

Online

Title. (Year Released). [Film: Online] Directed by … . Place of production: Production Company. Available from: URL. [Date accessed].

Shrek. (2001). [Film: Online] Directed by A. Anderson. Glendale, CA: Dreamworks. Available from: https://www.netflix.com/gb/. [Accessed 12 November 2014].

Cite in text: (Shrek, 2001)

If you are making reference to a particular scene or quoting from the film, you can also add in the exact time that the event occurs to help locate the information you are referring to: (Shrek, 2001: 1:24:35).

Foreign Language Sources

A translation of the title should be provided in square brackets in normal script. The example below is for a printed book.

Author. (Year) Title. [Translation]. Place of publication: Publisher.

Pagnol. M. (1988) Manon des sources. [Manon of the spring]. Paris: Fortunio.

Cite in text: (Pagnol, 1988)

N.B. If your material isn’t a printed book, just use the appropriate format and include the ‘Translation’ information.

Information Graphic - Image, Table, Diagram, Photograph, etc.

Print:

Author if known. (Year). Title. [Type, i.e., Table, Graph, Photograph, Cartoon] In: book/journal reference with page number.

ONS. (2010) UK mergers 1973-2009. [Graph] In: Griffiths, A. and Wall, S. (2012) Applied economics. (12th ed.) Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd. p.92.

Cite in text: (ONS, 2010)

 

Online:

Author (if known). (Year) Title/description of image. [Online image/video] Available from: URL. [Accessed date].

You may need to create your own name for an image if it doesn’t have one, particularly online. Sometimes it is difficult to establish the original date of the image, if that is the case use (N.D.) or (Unknown).

Arsham, H. (2015) Illustration of types of graphs. [Online image] Available from: http://home.ubalt.edu/ntsbarsh/excel/. [Accessed 1 December 2015].

Cite in text: (Arsham, 2015)

Gatti, R. (1983) David Bowie. [Online image] Available from: http://www.gettyimages.co.uk. [Accessed 25 January 2016].

Cite in text: (Gatti, 1983)

Interview

1. Interview You Have Conducted

You may not be expected to include a reference in your bibliography or reference list to an interview you have conducted yourself, check with your tutor for guidance. If you include a transcript of your interview in an appendix, cite the appendix when you refer to your transcript (E.g., Appendix A). If you are expected to cite and reference in the usual way, cite the interviewee’s name in the text and reference as follows.

Name of person being interviewed (Year) Title of interview. [Interview] Interviewed by … . Location and full date.

Brown, A. (2015) Development of study skills support for international students. [Interview] Interviewed by M. Barden. University of Bolton, 1 December 2015.

Cite in text: (Brown, 2015)

 

2. Interview Broadcast Or Online

Name of person being interviewed. (Year) Title of interview (if known). [Interview] Interviewed by … . [Online/Radio/TV] Name of broadcaster, full date and time of transmission OR if online Available from: URL. [Accessed date].

Allen, B. (2015) Midweek Programme interview. [Interview] Interviewed by L. Purves. [Radio] BBC Radio 4, 16 December 2015, 09:20.

Cite in text: (Allen, 2015)

Mandela, N. (1961) Nelson Mandela's first TV interview. [Interview] Interviewed by B. Widlake. [Online] Available from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/. [Accessed 1 December 2015].

Cite in text: (Mandela, 1961)

Leaflet

Author or Organisation. (Year if known) Title. [Leaflet] Place of publication: Publisher.

Department of Health. (2009) Swine flu vaccination: what you need to know. [Leaflet] London: Central Office of Information.

Cite in text: (Department of Health, 2009). The name of a Government Department can be abbreviated to a suitable short title after the first full citation, such as (DH, 2009)

Lecture/Presentation

It may not be acceptable to cite from your module lectures, so check with your tutor before doing so. However, you may attend presentations or conferences where you wish to cite something that you witnessed.

Presenter. (Year) Title of lecture/presentation. Title of Conference/Presentation/Module. Presented at: Location, full date.

Hardy, S. [Prof.] (2015) 'Research impact': a never ending personal and/or academic quest? The University of Bolton annual staff conference:The teaching intensive research informed (TIRI) university. Presented at: University of Bolton, Tuesday 7 July 2015.

Cite in text: (Hardy, 2015)

Lecture Notes or Handouts

It may not acceptable to reference your lecture material, check with your tutor first.

Author. (Year) Title of lecture or handout [Lecture notes or Handout] Title of module, date of delivery or distribution. Place of publication: Publisher.

Grundy, D. (2009) How to find information for assignments. [Handout] Health Studies. 29 October 2009. Bolton: The Library, University of Bolton.

Cite in text: (Grundy, 2009)

Magazine Article

Print:

Author. (Year) Title. Magazine, Date, Volume (Issue), pp. Pages.

Newman, S. (2008) Found in translation. Transmission, Summer 2008 (11), pp. 20-23.

Cite in text: (Newman, 2008)

 

Online:

Author (Year) Title. Magazine. [Online] Volume (Issue), pp. Pages. Available from: URL. [Accessed Date].

Keough, S. B. (2015) Editor's note. Material Culture. [Online] 47 (2), pp. 6-7. Available from: http://bolton.summon.serialssolutions.com/. [Accessed 26 January 2016].

Cite in text: (Keough, 2015)

Map

Print:

Name/Organisation. (Year) Title. Sheet number if applicable. Scale. Place of publication: Publisher.

Ordnance Survey. (1959) Lancashire. Sheet SD62. 1:25,000. London: Ordnance Survey.

Cite in text: (Ordnance Survey, 1959)

 

Online:

Name/Organisation (Year). Title (or location details). Scale. [Online] Available from: URL. [Date accessed].

Google Maps. (2015) Intu Trafford Centre. [Online] Available from: https://www.google.co.uk/maps/. [Accessed 1 December 2015].

Cite in text: (Google Maps, 2015)

Ordnance Survey. (2015) The Trafford Centre. 1:5,000. [Online] Available from: http://digimap.edina.ac.uk/. [Accessed 1 December 2015].

Cite in text: (Ordnance Survey, 2015)

Music - CD, Vinyl, Download, Online, Sheet Music, Live Performance

This is the general composition of musical references. See below for specific examples.

Author/composer. (Year of composition) Title. [Format] Performer if applicable. Date of recording/publication (if different from year of composition).Place of publication: Publisher.

1. CD/Vinyl

Artist/composer. (Year) Title. Performer if applicable [Format] Place of Publication: Publisher.

Duran Duran. (2015) Paper gods. [CD] London: Warner Brothers.

Cite in text: (Duran Duran, 2015)

Mozart, W. A. (1791) Requiem. [CD] Berlin Philharmonic. (1989) Berlin: Deutsche Grammophon.

Cite in text: (Mozart, 1791)

Various Artists. (2015) Now that's what I call music! 92. [CD] London: Now!

Cite in text: (Various Artists, 2015)

 

2. Individual Songs From a CD/Album

Artist (Year) Title of Song. Title of Album. [Format] Place of Publication: Publisher.

Coldplay. (2015) Birds. Head full of dreams. [CD] London: Parlophone Records.

Cite in text: (Coldplay, 2015)

 

3. Music Download/Online

Artist. (Year) Title. [Download/Online] Available from: URL. [Date accessed].

Florence and the Machine. (2015) How big, how blue, how beautiful. [Online] Available from: https://www.youtube.com/. [Accessed 27 November 2015].

Cite in text: (Florence and the Machine, 2015)

 

4. Musical Score

Composer. (Year) Title. (notes if applicable) [Sheet Music] Place of Publication: Publisher.

Britten, B. (1947) A charm of lullabies. (Arranged by Colin Matthews for mezzo-soprano and orchestra, 1990) [Sheet music] London: Boosey & Hawkes.

Cite in text: (Britten, 1947)

 

5. Live Music Performance

Artist (or originator/composer). Year written. Title. [Live performance] Name of performing artist. [Venue, location. Full date of performance seen].

Duran Duran. (2015) Paper gods. [Live performance] Duran Duran. [Manchester Arena, Manchester. 27 November 2015].

Cite in text: (Duran Duran, 2015)

Bernstein, L. (1944) Symphony no. 1, 'Jeremiah'. [Live performance] BBC Philharmonic. [Bridgewater Hall, Manchester. 13 November 2015].

Cite in text: (Bernstein, 1944)

Patent

Print:

Name of inventor. (Year) Title of patent document. Location. Patent number.

Koster, K. (2015) Method and apparatus for introducing ions into kingdon ion traps. London. GB2470259.

Cite in text: (Koster, 2015)

 

Online:

Name of inventor. (Year) Title of patent document. [Online] Location. Patent number. Available from: URL. [Date Accessed].

Koster, K. (2015) Method and apparatus for introducing ions into kingdon ion traps. [Online] London. GB2470259. Available from: https://www.ipo.gov.uk/p-ipsum/. [Accessed 2 December 2015].

Cite in text: (Koster, 2015)

Personal Communication

Including personal communication is debatable as the source is not in the public domain. Your tutor may prefer that you mention the source in the text, but do not include it in your reference list – clarify this point with your tutor prior to submission.

Author. (Year) Title if possible [Format, i.e., letter, conversation]. Personal communication. [Date].

Barden, M. E. (2009) Discussion on citation and referencing. [Conversation] Personal communication. [16 October 2009].

Cite in text: (Barden, 2009)

Play

Print:

Use the same format as for a book. The date used should be the year of publication in the particular edition you are using. If there are editor/s in addition to the original playwright, add them after the title.

Author. (Year of publication) Title. Editor/s (ed/s.) Place of Publication: Publisher.

Mamet, D. (2002) American buffalo. London: Methuen.

Cite In text: (Mamet, 2002)

Shakespeare, W. (1999) The tempest. Vaughan, V. G. and Vaughan, A. T. (eds.) Walton on Thames: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd.

Cite In text: (Shakespeare, 1999)

 

Live Performance:

Author. (Year of publication) Title. [Play] Directed by … . Theatre Company. [Venue, location. Full date of performance seen].

Waters, S. (2006) The night watch. [Play] Directed by Sarah Frankcom. Royal Exchange Theatre. [Royal Exchange Theatre, Manchester. 19 May 2016].

Cite In text: (Waters, 2006)

Podcast

Author/presenter. (Date) Title. Title of Internet site. [Podcast] Available from: URL. [Accessed date].

Mulryan, C. (2011) Principals MCQ feedback. University of Bolton eLearning: The Biological Basis of Disease & Therapeutics. [Podcast] Available from: http://elearning.bolton.ac.uk/mod/resource/view.php?id=67248. [Accessed 20 June 2013].

Cite in text: (Mulryan, 2011)

Poem

Poems are usually published in collections. You should refer to the poem and poet in the text with a citation to the collection in which it is published. The reference list or bibliography should refer only to the published work in the following format:

Author. (ed/s) (Year) Title. Place of Publication: publisher.

For example, if you were referring to the poem Lullaby by Anne Wilkinson, which is published in a collection by Jones and Swift, you would reference and cite it as follows:

Jones, E. and Swift, T. (eds.) (2010) Modern Canadian poets: an anthology of poems in English. Manchester: Carcanet Press Limited.

Cite in text: Anne Wilkinson’s Lullaby (Jones and Swift, 2010), was originally published …

Press Release

Author/Organisation. (Year) Title. [Press release] Full Date. Available from: URL. [Date Accessed].

General Medical Council. (2015) GMC to make series of fee changes in 2016. [Press release] 1 October 2015. Available from: http://www.gmc-uk.org/news/28067.asp. [Accessed 23 November 2015].

Cite in text: (General Medical Council, 2015)

Religious Text

Full title. (Year) Location: Publisher

The New English Bible: with the Apocrypha. (1976) New York: Oxford University Press.

Cite in text: Do not include the date or page numbers in the in-text citation as you usually would with a book; instead, use book, chapter and verse or equivalent. So, in the example below, Jeremiah is the book, 14 is the chapter and 6 denotes the verse.

(The Bible, Jeremiah 14:6)

Report

Print:

Author or Organisation. (Year) Title. (Report Number or code if applicable). Place of publication: Publisher.

Department for Education and Skills. (2005) Government response to hidden harm: the report of an inquiry by the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. Nottingham: DfES Publications.

Cite in text: (Department for Education and Skills, 1998). The name of a government department can be abbreviated to a suitable short title after the first full citation, such as (DfES, 2005)

 

Online:

Author or Organisation. (Year) Title. (Report Number or code if applicable). [Online] Available from: URL. [Accessed Date].

Department for Education and Skills. (2005) Government response to hidden harm: the report of an inquiry by the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs. [Online] Available from: http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/7250/. [Accessed 23 November 2015].

Cite in text: (Department for Education and Skills, 1998). The name of a government department can be abbreviated to a suitable short title after the first full citation, such as (DfES, 2005)

Social Media - Twitter, Facebook, etc.

Author/Organisation. (Year) Title. [Media] Date/month written. Available from: URL. [Date Accessed].

University of Bolton. (2015) University of Bolton Library. [Facebook] 6 November. Available from: https://www.facebook.com/boltonuniversitylibrary. [Accessed 23 November 2015].

Cite in text: (University of Bolton, 2015)

The BMJ. (2015) We must prioritise children today to improve the wellbeing of future generations. [Twitter] 23 November. Available from: https://twitter.com/bmj_latest. [Accessed 23 November 2015].

Cite in text: (BMJ, 2015)

Statutory Instrument

Unusually, the date is not enclosed by brackets, but forms part of the title.

Print:

Title and year. Abbreviation SI year/number. Place of publication: Publisher.

The Bathing Water Regulations 2013. SI 2013/1675. London: The Stationery Office.

Cite in text: (Bathing Water Regulations, 2013)

 

Online:

Title and year. Abbreviation SI year/number. [Online] Available from: URL. [Date accessed].

The Bathing Water Regulations 2013. SI 2013/1675. [Online] Available from: http://login.westlaw.co.uk/. [Accessed 26 January 2016].

Cite in text: (Bathing Water Regulations, 2013)

Television or Radio Programme

1. Broadcast

Single Broadcast:

Title. (Year) [TV programme] Directed/Produced by if known … . Location: Broadcasting organisation/channel. Full date and time of transmission.

The age of loneliness. (2016) [TV programme] Directed by Sue Bourne. London: BBC 1. 7 January 2016, 22:35.

Cite in text: (The age of loneliness, 2016).

 

Episode In A Series:

Put the series title and episode number if known, first in normal script followed by the year and then episode title in italics.

Title, Series/Episode number as applicable. (Year) Episode title. [TV programme] Directed/Produced by if known … . Location: Broadcasting organisation/channel. Full date and time of transmission.

A history of Scotland, Episode 1. (2009) The price of progress. [TV programme] Directed by S. Barclay. Glasgow: BBC Scotland. 8 December 2009.

Cite in text: (A history of Scotland, 2009).

The listening project. (2015) Michaela and Mary – with lots of sparkle. [Radio programme] Produced by M. Burgess. London: BBC Radio 4. 2 December 2015, 10:55.

Cite in text: (The listening project, 2015)

 

Entire Series:

Title, Series number. (Year) [TV programme] Directed/Produced by if known ... . Location: Broadcasting organisation/channel. Date of transmission.

Coast, Series 10. (2015) [TV programme] Produced by S. Evanson. London: BBC 2. May-June, 2009.

Cite in text: (Coast, 2015)

 

2. DVD

Title or series title with episode number if applicable. (Year) Programme title if part of a series. [TV programme: DVD] Directed/Produced by if known … . Location: Broadcasting organisation/channel.

Can Gerry Robinson fix the NHS? One year on. (2007) [TV programme: DVD] Directed by D. Barry. Milton Keynes: The Open University.

Cite in text: (Can Gerry Robinson fix the NHS? One year on, 2007)

Panorama. (2013) Elderly care: condition critical? [TV programme: DVD] Directed and produced by J. Plomin. London: BBC.

Cite in text: (Panorama, 2013)

Coast, Series 10. (2015) [TV programme: DVD] Produced by S. Evanson. London: BBC.

Cite in text: (Coast, 2015)

 

3. Online

Title or series title with Series/Episode number if applicable. (Year) Programme title if part of a series. [TV programme: Online] Directed/Produced by … . Location: Broadcasting organisation/channel. Available from: URL. [Accessed Date].

The Apprentice, Series 11: 9. (2015). Property agents. [TV programme: Online] Produced by C. Turner. London: BBC 1. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/. [Accessed 3 December 2015].

Cite in text: (The Apprentice, 2015)

Farming today. (2015) Climate change talks and agriculture. [Radio programme: Online] Produced by S. Challoner. London: BBC Radio 4. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/. [Accessed 2 December 2015].

Cite in text: use the title with date. (Farming today, 2015)

Thesis/Dissertation

Print:

Author. (Year) Title. Degree type. University.

Colling, J.A. (2008) Towards a better understanding of self-care for long-term condition patients. MSc. University of Bolton.

Cite in text: (Colling, 2008)

 

Online:

Author. (Year) Title. Degree type. University. [Online] Available from: URL. [Accessed Date].

Isherwood, P. (2015) Numinous connections: poetry in the hospice. [Online] PhD thesis, University of Bolton. Available from: http://ubir.bolton.ac.uk/. [Accessed 28 January 2016].

Cite in text: (Isherwood, 2015)

Translated Sources

Include details of the translator. The example below is for a printed book. The date of publication should be from the book you are using, rather than the publication date of the original material.

Author. (Year) Title. Translated by. Place of publication: Publisher.

Homer. (1973) The odyssey. Translated by E. V. Rieu. London: Allen lane.

Cite in text: (Homer, 1973)

N.B. If your material isn’t a printed book, just use the appropriate format and include the ‘Translated by’ information.

Video Clip Online/YouTube

Author/contributor. (Year) Title. [Online video] Available from: URL. [Accessed Date].

Library La Trobe University. (2010) Why can't I just Google? [Online video] Available from: https://www.youtube.com/. [Accessed 3 December].

Cite in Text: (Library La Trobe University, 2010)

Work of Art (original)

Artist. (Year) Title of Work of Art. [Material type, i.e. Sculpture, Painting] Location: Name of Gallery/Museum.

Collins, C. A. (1850) The Pedlar. [Painting] Manchester: Manchester Art Gallery.

Cite in text: (Collins, 1850)

If the work you are referring to is being displayed in a temporary exhibition, include the relevant details.

Bottomley, S. (2013) Stellar Diamond. [Jewellery] Black on Black exhibition. Manchester: Manchester Art Gallery, 20 June – 9 October 2015.

Cite in text: (Bottomley, 2013)