This web page is intended as a guide to numeric referencing. Please check with your tutor for the exact format required for your work.

 

Library Publications

 

Citing in the Text

The Numeric system uses superscript numbers which run sequentially through your essay. They must not run out of sequence nor be repeated. These numbers will tie in with your list of References which usually appears at the end of your essay.

Citing in the Text

Single author

To cite a single author in the text you need to include the author’s surname followed by a superscript number:

For Example

The works of Preece1 and Rawcliffe2 were concerned to emphasise the importance of quality in social research.

Note: it is customary, the first time you refer to an author in your main text, to use not just their surname, but first name, or initials, too.

For Example

The works of Jason Preece1 and T. Rawcliffe2 were concerned to.....

 

Multiple authors

How you cite multiple authors in the text depends upon the number of authors. For 1 or 2 authors, all are cited.

For Example

Cutler, & Williams3 believe that the fermentation process is prolonged by such low temperatures.

For 3 or more authors, only the first is cited, the others are represented by et al.

For Example

Matlock et al.4 discussed the use of electronic databases.

 

Citing a Citation

Occasionally you may want to cite a reference that has been mentioned in a work you have been reading. Before doing so, you should make every effort to track down, and read, the original material. You must not give the impression that you have consulted the originals by listing them in your bibliography, as you might be accused of plagiarism. In other words, you must not quote a secondary source as a primary source.

However, if you cannot consult the originals, you may cite them as follows:

In Your Text

“We examine ideology as fellow travellers, not as neutral observers.” (A. Vincent, 1995).10

 

In Your Footnote/Reference List

10Quoted in A. Heywood. Political ideologies: an introduction. 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2012,
p. 15.

 

In Your Bibliography

Heywood, A. Political ideologies: an introduction. 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2012, p. 15.

Vincent, A. Modern Political Ideologies. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell. 1995. Quoted in Heywood.

Citing the Author of a Chapter in an Edited Book

If you are citing the author of chapter in book with a different editor, cite the chapter author in the text:

For Example

Harlen11 considers that both formative and summative assessment contribute to effective teaching and learning.

Cite in the bibliography or reference list as follows:

11 Harlen, W. On the relationship between assessment for formative and summative purposes. In J. Gardner, (ed.) Assessment and learning, 2nd ed. London: Sage, 2012, p.87.

Direct Quotes

In order to cite a direct quote from a single author you need to put the quote in inverted commas, followed by the superscript number.

For Example

As Jones says “These resting times provide periods for reflection and permit time for new things to be learned, mastered and brought to fruition.” 5

How you cite multiple authors in the text depends upon the number of authors. Remember to add the superscript number.

For Example

1 or 2 authors (all authors are cited):
“those leading the innovation need to have a steady purpose under such pressure” according to Hawkridge and McMahon. 6

3 or more authors (only the first author is cited and the others are represented by et al):
Warren et al state that “Before attempting to decide which is the best computer for you, it may help to familiarize yourself with some of the jargon you are likely to meet.” 7

You must separate your text from the footnote with a line as below.


5 I. Jones. Stress management. Cardiff: Univ. of Wales Press, 1995. p. 122.
6 P. Hawkridge and M. McMahon. The management of change. London: Sage, 2000. p.79.
7 A. Warren, et al. Computers and you. London: Computing Press, 1998. pp.3-4.

Electronic Sources

In order to cite from an electronic journal or web site you need to include the author’s surname and the year of publication in brackets. Remember to add the superscript number.

For Example

Turner8 has created many useful graphs showing the transition between the different age groups.

In order to cite from a web site that has no author, apart from the organisation that hosts the page, you should use information from the home page to form your author. If there is no obvious title you can, if you wish, construct one and place it in square brackets. Remember to add the superscript number.

For Example

A comprehensive study by the Imperial Cancer Research Fund9 has stated that lung cancer is the most common form of the disease in the UK.

You must separate your text from the footnote with a line as below.


8 B. Turner. The social construction of age. Ageing and society [Online]. 10(3), 2001, pp.21-24. Available from ProQuest. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb
9 Imperial Cancer Research Fund [Specific cancers]. 2000. [Online]. Available from http://www.ICRFUK.org [Accessed 2 December 2003].

Paraphrasing or Summarising

In order to cite a single author in the text you need to include the author’s surname. Add a numerical sequence using superscript as shown in the example below. The date and other relevant details will be included in the footnote and reference list.

For Example

The works of Preece1 and Rawcliffe2 were concerned to emphasise the importance of quality in social research.

How you cite multiple authors in the text depends upon the number of authors. Remember to add the superscript number.

For Example

1 or 2 authors (all authors are cited):
Cutler, & Williams3 believe that the fermentation process is prolonged by such low temperatures.

3 or more authors (only the first author is cited and the others are represented by et al.):
Matlock et al4 discussed the use of electronic databases.

You must separate your text from the footnote with a line as below.


1 J. Preece. Social research: quality matters. London: Sage, 1998.
2 T. Rawcliffe. How to make quality count. London: Routledge, 2000.
3 T. Cutler and K. Williams. Low temperature fermentation processes. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1986.
4 J. Matlock, et al. Electronic resources. London: CILIP, 2001.

 

Citing in a Reference List

In a list of references names are given with the author’s first name, first followed by last name. Only sources specifically cited in your essay are included. The following list shows some examples of different types of sources that you may use.

A Sample Reference list

1 Jason Preece. Social research: quality matters. London: Sage, 1998, p. 61.

2 Ibid.

3 Ibid., p. 65.

4 T. Rawcliffe. How to make quality count. London: Routledge, 2000.

5 T. Cutler and J. Williams. Low temperature fermentation processes. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1986.

6 John Matlock. et al. Electronic resources. London: CILIP, 2001.

7 Ian Jones. Stress management. Cardiff: Univ. of Wales Press, 1995. pp. 122-3.

8 P. Hawkridge and M. McMahon. The management of change. London: Sage, 2000. p. 79.

9 Preece, op. cit., p. 78.

10 A. Warren et al. Computers and you. London: Computing Press, 1998. pp. 3-4.

11 Brian Turner. The social construction of age. Ageing and society. 10 (3), 2001. pp. 21-24. ProQuest http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb [2 August 2012].

12 Jones, loc. cit..

13 Imperial Cancer Research Fund. Specific cancers. 2000. http://www.ICRFUK.org [2 December 2003].

14 Rawcliffe, op.cit..

Book

Format:
Author. Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Date, page number/s.

Example:
Peter Singer. Animal Liberation. 2nd ed. London: Harper-Collins, 1990, p. 79.

Book or Section or Chapter

Format:
Author. Title. In: Editor.(ed/s.) Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Date. pp. Pages.

Example:
J.S. Town. Information literacy and the information society. In: Hornby, S. and Clarke, Z. (eds.) Change and challenge: debates on the Information Society for the 21st Century. London: Facet Publishing, 2003, pp. 83-103.

Common terms and abbreviations used in a list of references

After your first full reference, you can abbreviate any future reference to this particular one. Latin terms are used for this, see below:

Ibid.

Use where a reference is to the same work as in the immediately preceding reference – and same page if quoted.

For example:
1 Peter Singer. Animal Liberation. 2nd ed. London: Harper-Collins, 1990, p. 198.
2 Ibid.

If the reference is to a different page than that in the first it would be shown as:

1 Peter Singer. Animal Liberation. 2nd ed. London: Harper-Collins, 1990, p. 198.
2 Ibid., p. 138.

Loc. Cit.

Use where a reference is to the same page of a work cited in an earlier reference, but not the immediately preceding one.

For example:
1 A.C. Hepburn. ‘The Belfast riots of 1935’. Social History, Vol. 15, no. 1, 1991, p. 75.
25 Hepburn, loc. cit..

Op. Cit.

Use where a reference is to a work cited earlier, but not the immediately preceding one and not the same page.

For example:
1 William Carr. A history of Germany. 4th ed. London: Edward Arnold, 1991, p. 98.
22 Carr, op. cit., p. 102.

Note: if you have more than one text by the same author, distinguish it by adding the first word of the title e.g. Carr, Origins, op. cit., p. 24. – but make sure you have quoted the complete reference earlier.

For a more detailed explanation of using terms and abbreviations please refer to the University of Bolton’s publication ‘Cite me I’m yours: Numeric version’ by David Rudd

Edited Book

Format:
Editor. (ed/s.) Title. Edition . Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

Example:
M. Oldroyd. (ed.) Developing academic library staff for future success. London: Facet Publishing, 2004.

Electronic Book

Format:
Author. Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Date. Distributor. URL [Accessed Date].

Example:
D. Keenan and S. Riches. Business law. Harlow: Pearson Education, 2007. Myilibrary. http://lib.myilibrary.com/ [27 June 2009].

Email

Format:
Name of sender. <sender’s email address> Subject heading. Date of email. Email to recipient’s <recipient’s email address>

Example:
Keith Green. <K.M.Green@shu.ac.uk> ‘External for validation’. 8 June 2005. Email to David Rudd <dhr1@bolton.ac.uk>

Journal/Periodical/Magazine/Newspaper Article (Electronic)

Format:
Author. Title. Journal. Volume (Issue), Year, pp. Pages. Journal/Database Provider URL [Accessed Date]

Example:
M. Moullin. Eight essentials of performance management. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance. 17 (3), 2004, pp. 110-112. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/ [2 March 2006]

Journal/Periodical/Magazine/Newspaper Article (Printed)

Format:
Author. Title. Journal, Volume, (Issue), Date, pp. pages.

Example:
M. Kennerley and A. Neely. Measuring performance in a changing business environment. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Vol. 23 (2), 2003, pp. 213-229.

Thesis

Format:
Author. Title, Degree type. University. Year

Example:
J.A. Colling. Towards a better understanding of self-care for long-term condition patients. MSc. University of Bolton. 2008.

Web Page

Format:
Author or Organisation. Title. Year. URL [Accessed Date]

Examples:
R. Leggatt. A history of photography from its beginnings till the 1920s. 1992. http://www.rleggat.com/photohistory/ [8 August 2003]

Cabinet Office. Building Britain’s recovery. 2010. http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/ [8 January 2010]

 

Citing in a Bibliography

All material listed in a references/notes list needs to be contained again in a bibliography. This comes after your references/notes list and is a comprehensive listing of all material consulted, whether or not is has been specifically quoted in your essay. All items are listed alphabetically by an author’s last name, first then first name. The following list shows some examples of different types of sources that you may use.

A Sample Bibliography

Bate, P. Learners are born, says report. Independent, 16th January 2000, pp. 5 and 7.

Bossons, P.J. The effects of personality and studying style on the success of distance learning students: a study of students' perceptions of success with one distance learning course. Ph.D. Brunel. 1998.

Cutler, T. and Williams, J. Low temperature fermentation processes. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1986.

Glasbergen, P. and Groenenberg, R. Environmental partnerships in sustainable energy. European Environment, January/February, 11 (1), 2002, pp. 1-13. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com [12 August 2003].

Imperial Cancer Research Fund. Specific cancers. 2000. http://www.ICRFUK.org. [2 December 2003].

Lawrence, S. <s.lawrence@go-regions.gsi.gov.uk> Government office for Yorkshire and Humberside information. 6 July 2003. Email to F. Berry <f.berry@lmu.ac.uk>

Lucas, K.B. and Lidstone, J.G. Ethical issues in teaching about research ethics. Evaluation and Research in Education, 14 (1), 2000, pp. 53-64.

Matlock, J. et al. Electronic resources. London: CILIP, 2001.

Porter, M.A. The modification of method in researching postgraduate education. In: Burgess, R.G. ed. The research process in educational settings: ten case studies. London: Falmer Press, 1993, pp .17-28.

Town, J.S. Information literacy and the information society. In: Hornby, S. and Clarke, Z. (eds.) Change and challenge: debates on the Information Society for the 21st Century. London: Facet Publishing, 2003, pp. 83-103.

Book

Format:
Author. Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Date, page number/s.

Example:
Singer, Peter. Animal Liberation. 2nd ed. London: Harper-Collins, 1990, p. 79.

Book Section or Chapter

Author. Title. In: Editor.(e d/s.) Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher , Date. pp. Pages.

Example:
Town, J.S. Information literacy and the information society. In: Hornby, S. and Clarke, Z. (eds.) Change and challenge: debates on the Information Society for the 21st Century. London: Facet Publishing, 2003, pp. 83-103.

Edited Book

Format:
Editor. (ed/s.) Title. Edition . Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

Example:
Oldroyd, M. (ed.) Developing academic library staff for future success. London: Facet Publishing, 2004.

Electronic Book

Format:
Author. Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Date. Distributor. URL [Accessed Date].

Example:
Keenan, D and Riches, S. Business law. Harlow: Pearson Education, 2007. Myilibrary. http://lib.myilibrary.com/ [27 June 2009]

Email

Format:
Name of sender. <sender’s email address> Subject heading. Date of email. Email to recipient’s <recipient’s email address>

Example:
Green, Keith. <K.M.Green@shu.ac.uk> External for validation. 8 June 2005. Email to David Rudd <dhr1@bolton.ac.uk>

Journal/Periodical/Magazine/Newspaper article (Electronic)

Format:
Author. Title. Journal. Volume (Issue), Year, pp. Pages. Journal/Database Provider URL [Accessed Date]

Example:
Moullin, M. Eight essentials of performance management. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance. 17 (3), 2004, pp. 110-112. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/ [2 March 2006]

Journal/Periodical/Magazine/Newspaper article (Printed)

Format:
Author. Title. Journal, Volume, (Issue), Date, pp. pages.
 

Example:
Kennerley, M. and Neely, A. Measuring performance in a changing business environment. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Vol. 23 (2), 2003, pp. 213-229.

Thesis

Format:
Author. Title, Degree type. University. Year.

Example:
Colling, J.A. Towards a better understanding of self-care for long-term condition patients. MSc. University of Bolton. 2008.

Web Page

Format:
Author or Organisation. Title. Year. URL [Accessed Date]

Examples:
Leggatt, R. A history of photography from its beginnings till the 1920s. 1992. http://www.rleggat.com/photohistory/ [8 August 2003]

Cabinet Office. Building Britain’s recovery. 2010. http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/ [8 January 2010]